Print out of permeability reduction

Hi guys,

Anybody out there could send me a piece of advise how to get permeability reduction "k-red" printed out when running Tough2 with ECO2N?
I tried a couple of things in "OUTPU" and "SELEC", but it didn't help. I get only absolute and relative perm, no time series data of delta-k or "k-red", started to suspect that it is a feature for Tough3.

Thanks in advance


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  • It's been a little while since I ran ECO2N, so I can't remember the answer to this, but does it look like the absolute permeability changes with solid salt saturation?  If so, could you simply take the difference between the permeability set in the ROCKS block and the one printed with the output to get the metric you're looking for?

  • Thank you Mikey,

    I can see from other indications that permeability is reduced, but despite having the option of "permeability dependency on salt precipitation", the updated absolute permeabilities are not printed; whichever option you make in KDATA, OUTPU, or other alternatives in MOPs and MOMOPS. I've seen in ECO2N and ECO2M manuals, direct printout of K-RED shown for sample problems. But it is not explicitly given where you ask for such printout.

    Best regards

  • Hello Godarzi,

    First I want to confirm with you that you are running TOUGH3. If that is the case, we should have the discussion under TOUGH3 instead of TOUGH2.

    Second, which version of ECO2N are you using?

    Third, I seem to remember options of printing k-reduced in TOUGH2 but I am not sure about TOUGH3. Is it in TOUGH3 ECO2N manual? The sample problem you talked about, is it from TOUGH2 or TOUGH3? If in TOUGH3, can you tell me which one it is ?


  • Thank you looking into this Yingqi,

    I am using Tough2 version 7.1.

    In ECO2 v2 manual problem nr. 2, section 5.2, Fig. 5.2.5. shows K-red.

    The corresponding sample is given in ECO2M manual (updated Sep 2013) , Fig. 18, Section 6.2. It shows K-red in the figure and it is also explained in the text. 

    I hope this clarifies where to look for.

    Best regards

  • Sorry for the late reply. I usually use TOUGH3 and iTOUGH2 so I had to look for the released version of TOUGH2.

    I think you have confused TOUGH3 features with TOUGH2. For example OUTPU is only in TOUGH3 and iTOUGH, not in TOUGH2.

    k-red is printed out in regular TOUGH2 output. See attached example in the released package.

    Please let me know if you still do not find it. Then we need to figure out what version of code you have.



  • Thank you for clarification.

    I should have been more precise, I am using actually iTough2 and not Tough2. I tried to figure out which output option is actually stand for k-red in your input file, without success. 

    I understand that it is then not possible to print "k-red". But isn't there any other options to print absolute permeability when running Tough2 through iTough2 and using eco2n or eco2m?


  • Sorry, by that, I meant absolute permeability as time series.


  • Hi Godarzi,

    Now that we have established that you're using iTOUGH2 V7.1, the answer becomes straightforward.

    Here are 3 ways to get a time series of the permeability reduction factor using iTOUGH2. I demonstrate it using a slightly modified version of the standard ECO2N test problem 2, file gcc3 (see ECO2N manual). Let's pick the first element, named A1001

    (1) K-Red is actually printed in the standard output (also when running ECO2N through iTOUGH2).  

     *rcc3a* ... Code Intercomparison problem3: Radial flow from a CO2 Injection Well
              OUTPUT DATA AFTER (   42, 8)-2-TIME STEPS                                                    THE TIME IS 0.528588E-01 DAYS
      TOTAL TIME     KCYC   ITER  ITERC   KON        DX1M         DX2M         DX3M          MAX. RES.      NER    KER        DELTEX
     4.567000E+03     42      8    261     2       4.78308E+05  9.74994E+00  1.00729E+01    9.71938E-08      21     1       5.12000E+02
     ELEM. INDEX        P         T       SG          SS         XNACL       YH2OG       XCO2aq       PCAP     K-RED       DG        DL
                      (PA)   (DEG-C)                                                                                 (KG/M^3)  (KG/M^3)
     A1001     1 0.22081E+08  45.00  0.6930E+00  0.1457E-02  0.2633E+00  0.2152E-02  0.1593E-01 -0.7665E+05 0.987E+00  833.91   1201.08

    So you could simply force printout at every time step and extract the value for element A1001.


    (2) The permeability reduction factor is stored as the viscosity (secondary parameter No. 3) of the solid phase (i.e., phase No. 3). (Okay, this is insider knowledge, but you can get that from the ECO2N source code). Therefore, you can write the following OUTPU block:

    SECONDARY          3 3

    and combine it with a FOFT block:

    FOFT ----1----*----2----*----3----*----4----*----5----*----6----*----7----*----8
    A1  1

    This will get you the desired time series in the FOFT file at every time step:

    "              KCYC","        TIME [sec]","   VISC_SAL (PA*S)"
                       1,  0.100000000000E+01,  0.100000000000E+01
                       2,  0.200000000000E+01,  0.100000000000E+01
                       3,  0.300000000000E+01,  0.100000000000E+01
                      ..,                 ...,                 ...
                      40,  0.379900000000E+04,  0.100000000000E+01
                      41,  0.405500000000E+04,  0.100000000000E+01
                      42,  0.456700000000E+04,  0.986682816978E+00
                      43,  0.507900000000E+04,  0.937085103180E+00
                      44,  0.559100000000E+04,  0.888501770620E+00
                      45,  0.610300000000E+04,  0.841212491165E+00
                      46,  0.661500000000E+04,  0.795684861195E+00
                      47,  0.712700000000E+04,  0.752195753959E+00
                      48,  0.763900000000E+04,  0.711209176790E+00
                      49,  0.815100000000E+04,  0.673451576976E+00
                      50,  0.866300000000E+04,  0.639905331763E+00
                      ..,                 ...,                 ...


    (3) You can also specify an iTOUGH2 observation block (in a separate iTOUGH2 input file) as follows:

    demonstrate printing of permeability reduction factor
    > observation
      >> time: 100 logarithmically spaced in seconds
         100.0 8.64E+08
      >> secondary parameter
         >>> element        : A1__1
             >>>> annotation: perm. red. fact.
             >>>> phase     : 3 (solid phase)
             >>>> index     : 3 (viscosity)

    which will give you the following .tec file

    TITLE = "*rcc3a* ... Code Intercomparison problem3: Radial flow from a CO2 Injection Well"
    VARIABLES = "Time  [sec]"  "perm. red. fact"
    ZONE T = "     1 SIM    0-perm. red. fact A1001"  I =   100
      1.000000000000E+02  1.000000000000E+00
      2.321333864477E+02  1.000000000000E+00
      3.840197724201E+02  1.000000000000E+00
      5.586120905614E+02  1.000000000000E+00
      7.593047158998E+02  1.000000000000E+00
      9.899994583375E+02  1.000000000000E+00
      1.255181420548E+03  1.000000000000E+00
      1.560006196087E+03  1.000000000000E+00
      1.910400103004E+03  1.000000000000E+00
      2.313175401657E+03  1.000000000000E+00
      2.776162736772E+03  1.000000000000E+00
      3.308363378656E+03  1.000000000000E+00
      3.920124223368E+03  1.000000000000E+00
      4.623338954186E+03  9.804524020871E-01
      5.431679275265E+03  9.028429051582E-01
      6.360860713093E+03  8.173613517264E-01
      7.428948153357E+03  7.271973900307E-01
      8.656707053402E+03  6.404169991742E-01
      1.006800715845E+04  5.690937334115E-01
      1.169028657049E+04  5.023638028022E-01
                     ...                 ...

    Time stepping and printout times are different in this case (because they are controlled by the >> time command), but the results are consistent.

    I hope one of these solutions will work for you.


  • Thank you Stefan,
    Great to get a feedback from you. Hope you are doing well.
    I got it with your suggested alternatives 2 and 3.
    I was actually running Tough2 through iTough2 and in std output nowhere to find it. I had tried with secondary parameter, but failed with the phase number.

    Best regards

  • Hello Godarzi,

    I am confused by "running TOUGH2 through iTOUGH2", are you using iTOUGHe pest to call TOUGH2, or are you running iTOUGH2?

    Please be specific, what version of the code are you using?


  • Godarzi,

    I checked again using iTOUGH2 V7.1, which is the version released by LBNL. If you have that version, the permeability reduction factor is printed to the TOUGH2 output file, as shown in my previous post (search for "K-RED" in red.out). 

    I don't know what you mean by "failed with the phase number" (please always give the error message you get when something failed), and I don't understand how "alternatives 2 and 3" worked for you, as both rely on being able to select the phase number. 

    I attach the input and output files I used to test your issue.



  • Sorry for confusion.

    I run with your alternative 2 and 3 and I got the print out. I use itough2 v7.1.

    I thought I failed earlier due to wrong choice of phase, "IPH" in OUTPU, but it wasn't that actually . I checked it today. I used  "All secondary parameter, ISP=0 and all phases" that supposed to include everything in output, but I didn't get the permeability factor. I know now, that it is viscosity that I should have looked for, it was there.

    About Tough2 and iTough2; I think it was just the way I expressed it. I admit that it was confusing, sorry. The way we have made our command structure, we run -single forward runs with core tough2 as a nested command line that call tough2 through itough2. 


    Again thank you for following me up through this, like you did before with EOS 1sc. 

    I may send you an email and give you an update on what we are doing, if it is Ok.


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